Units of weight

Just like the measures of length, the 17th-century European measures of weight had been derived from the old Roman examples.

The Roman system was devised as follows:

  • scrupulum (1/4 sextula) – 1.14 gr
  • sextula (1/6 uncia) – 4.55 gr
  • uncia (1/12 libra) – 27.29 gr
  • semis/semissis (1/2 libra) – 163.73 gr
  • libra/as – 327.45 gr

In Amsterdam the following measures have been in use:

  • aas (1/32 engels) – 0.04825 gr
  • engels (1/10 lood) – 1.54403 gr
  • lood (1/2 once) – 15.44032 gr
  • once (1/16 pond) – 30.88065 gr
  • pond – 494.09040 gr

In The Hague a somewhat different set was used:

  • vierde wichtje (1/4 wichtje) – 0.917 gr
  • wichtje (1/4 lood) – 3.700 gr
  • lood (1/32 pond) – 14.679 gr
  • pond – 469.728 gr

For medical usage also was used in The Netherlands:

  • grein (1/20 scrupel) – 0.0641 gr
  • scrupel (1/3 drachma) – 1.2817 gr
  • drachma (1/8 once) – 3.8451 gr
  • once (1/12 pond) – 30.7605 gr
  • pond – 369.1260 gr

French weights were:

  • grain (1/24 denier) – 0.0531 gr
  • denier (1/3 gros) – 1.2748 gr
  • gros (1/8 once) – 3.8243 gr
  • once (1/8 marc) – 30.5941 gr
  • marc (1/2 livre) – 244.7529 gr
  • livre – 489.5058 gr